Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, and Raghavendra Tirtha. When I lay my hands upon the book titled "Who Wrote the Bhagavad Gita? Religious leaders and scholars interpret the word Bhagavad in a number of ways. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. [67] According to the Gita translator Radhakrishnan, quoted in a review by Robinson, Krishna's discourse is a "comprehensive synthesis" that inclusively unifies the competing strands of Hindu thought such as "Vedic ritual, Upanishadic wisdom, devotional theism and philosophical insight". During the independence movement in India, Hindus considered active "burning and drowning of British goods" while technically illegal under colonial legislation, were viewed as a moral and just war for the sake of liberty and righteous values of the type Gita discusses. Whatever the result, it does not affect them. [92] Gambhirananda's view is supported by a few versions of chapter 6.43 of the Mahabharata. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being. [152][153][154], Some translators title the chapter as Purushottama yoga, Religion by Attaining the Supreme Krishna, The Supreme Self, or The Yoga of the Supreme Purusha. [374] The teachings of the Gita on ahimsa are ambiguous, states Arvind Sharma, and this is best exemplified by the fact that Nathuram Godse stated the Gita as his inspiration to do his dharma after he assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. [374] For Gandhi, states Vajpeyi, ahimsa is the "relationship between self and other" while he and his fellow Indians battled against the colonial rule. Krishna reminds him that everyone is in the cycle of rebirths, and while Arjuna does not remember his previous births, he does. The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge. In 1966, Mahārishi Mahesh Yogi published a partial translation. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna. [283], Abhinavagupta was a theologian and philosopher of the Kashmir Shaivism (Shiva) tradition. Eons end, everything dissolves and then he recreates another eon subjecting them to the laws of Prakriti (nature). [142], Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. The Gita Press has published the Gita in multiple Indian languages. [241][note 18] The ideas at the center of Vedic rituals in Shatapatha Brahmana and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita revolve around this absolute Person, the primordial genderless absolute, which is same as the goal of Pancaratra Agama and Tantra. 14th Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi called the Bhagavad Gita "India's biggest gift to the world". However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same. Patton, Laurie L.; The Failure of Allegory in. [210] According to Zaehner, the term dharma means "duty" in Gita's context, in verse 2.7 refers to the "right [and wrong]", and in 14.27 to "eternal law of righteousness". He states that truthfulness, self-restraint, sincerity, love for others, desire to serve others, being detached, avoiding anger, avoiding harm to all living creatures, fairness, compassion and patience are marks of the divine nature. Bhagavad Gita 9.1. It upholds the necessity of action. [31], Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. [99][note 11] Two massive armies have gathered to destroy the other. [89][90] Variant manuscripts of the Gita have been found on the Indian subcontinent[63][91] Unlike the enormous variations in the remaining sections of the surviving Mahabharata manuscripts, the Gita manuscripts show only minor variations and the meaning is the same. Scholars believe it probably dates somewhere between the 5th and 2nd century B.C.E., and may have been written by the sage, Vyasa. [141], Some translators title the chapter as Vishvarupa–Darshana yoga, The Manifesting of the One and Manifold, The Cosmic Vision, or The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. To Ambedkar, states Klausen, it is a text of "mostly barbaric, religious particularisms" offering "a defence of the kshatriya duty to make war and kill, the assertion that varna derives from birth rather than worth or aptitude, and the injunction to perform karma" neither perfunctorily nor egotistically. For alternate worded translations, see Radhakrishnan. [246]:525–530, According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution. [172][173][174][note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. [332], A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India, despite being a Muslim, used to read Bhagavad Gita and recite mantras.[333][334][335][336][337]. [125] Krishna answers that both are paths to the same goal, but the path of "selfless action and service" with inner renunciation is better. An ancient Indian scripture consisting of eighteen chapters from the sixth book (Bhishma Parva) of the Mahabharata epic. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. [53] The Bhagavad Gita is a "summation of the Vedanta", states Sargeant. [288] His commentary on the Gita is called Gita Bhāshya. The Indologist Robert Minor, and others,[web 1] in contrast, state the Gita is "more clearly defined as a synthesis of Vedanta, Yoga and Samkhya" philosophies of Hinduism. [104] According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the "purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human soul, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest". [370] Their attempt was to present their "universalist religion". [166][167] It accomplishes this synthesis by projecting the nirguna Brahman as higher than saguna or personalized Brahman, where the nirguna Brahman "exists when everything else does not", states Fowler. [42][note 6] This suggests a terminus ante quem (latest date) of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st century CE. "[323], The Bhagavad Gita has been highly praised, not only by prominent Indians including Mahatma Gandhi and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,[324] but also by Aldous Huxley, Henry David Thoreau, J. Robert Oppenheimer,[325] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Carl Jung, Herman Hesse,[326][327] and Bülent Ecevit.[328]. [233] However, Aurobindo rejected the interpretation that the Gita, and the Mahabharata by extension, is only "an allegory of the inner life", and it has nothing to do with our outward human life and actions. Duty '' and a `` summation of the Bhagavad Gita ( /ˌbʌɡəvəd ˈɡiːtɑː, -tə/ ; Sanskrit भगवद्... Self is linked to the laws of prakriti ( nature, matter ) is process driven has! Counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita saying that it is born, grows matures... Scholars have written bhashya ( commentary ) on the date of the Kurukshetra.. 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